PADI home
Model List
leftNav rightNav Login

Design Pattern List  

Last Editor
Name and description sort ascending ID Group Last editor Comment
Model Use in Interdependence Among Living Systems
This design pattern supports developing tasks that require students to reason through the structures, relationships, and processes of ecological models.
Use of ecological models is often combined with the formation of ecological models in tasks. Many tasks that address evaluation and revision of ecological models also involve the use of these models.
2225 PADI ahaydel  
Illustrative design pattern based on genetics learning progression for grades 5-10
This design pattern describes students' evolving knowledge of the characteristics and functions of genes. Its contents are based on a published journal article by Duncan, Rogat, & Yarden (2009) in which the authors posit a learning progression for deepening students' understandings of modern genetics across grades 5-10. This understanding of modern genetics is identified in the paper as consisting of understanding of the genetic model, the molecular model, and the meiotic model. The paper posits 8 main ideas about the three models followed by the characteristics of what students in grade bands 5-6, 7-8, and 9-10 are capable of understanding about the main ideas respectively.

All fields associated with the Duncan, Rogat, & Yarden article contain direct quotes from the article. Each quote is referenced by the number of the page on which it appears.
2233 PADI dzalles The main ideas are that (1) "All organisms have genetic information that is hierarchically organized" (p. 661), (2) "The genetic information contains universal instructions that specify protein structure" (p. 661), (3) "Proteins have a central role in the functioning of all living organisms and are the mechanism that connects genes and traits" (p. 661), (4) "All cells have the same genetic information but different cells use (express) different genes" (p. 661), (5) "Organisms reproduce by transferring their genetic information to the next generation" (p. 661), (6) "There are patterns of correlation between genes and traits and there are certain probabilities with which these patterns occur" (p. 662), (7) "Changes to the genetic information can cause changes in how we look and function (phenotype), and such variation in the DNA can serve as a way to identify individuals and species" (p. 662), and (8) "Environmental factors can interact with our genetic information" (p. 662). Big Ideas 1-4 address "How do genes influence how we, and other organisms, look and function?" (p. 661) and Big Ideas 5-8 address "Why do we, and other organisms, vary in how we look and function" (p. 661)?

As postulated by Stewart, Cartier, and Passmore (2005), the genetic model "deals with the patterns of inheritance observed when organisms reproduce sexually and the probabilities with which different patterns are likely to occur (sometimes referred to as classical or transmission genetics). The second model is the meiotic model, which relates to the cellular processes underlying gene recombination, sorting and transfer from one generation to the next. The third model is the molecular model, which deals with the mechanisms that link genes to their biological outcomes (p. 657)."

Taking the perspective that the genetic model needs to be emphasized in the earliest grades, this learning progression distinguishes itself from a competing learning progression about genetics that advocates learning about the molecular model first (Roseman et. al., 2006). The advocates of both learning progressions argue however that their approach is most conducive to greater student understanding of genetic principles.
Design Pattern for Observational Investigation
This design pattern supports the writing of tasks that address scientific reasoning and process skills in observational (non-experimental) investigations. Observational investigations differ from experimental investigations. In experimental investigations, it is necessary to control or manipulate one or more of the variables of interest to test a prediction or hypothesis; in observational investigations, variables typically cannot be altered at all (e.g., objects in space) or in a short time frame (e.g., a lake ecosystem). This design pattern may be used to generate groups of tasks for any science content strand.
2167 Kansas, PADI rmislevy  
Design Pattern for Model-Based Inquiry in Model-Based Reasoning
This design pattern supports developing tasks in which students work interactively between physical realities and models, using principles, knowledge and strategies that span all aspects and variations of model-based reasoning.
2223 PADI mfeng  
Design Pattern for Model Use in Model-Based Reasoning
This design pattern supports developing tasks that require students to reason through the structures, relationships, and processes of a given model.
Model use is often combined with model formation in the same tasks, and most tasks that address model evaluation and model revision also involve model use.
2218 PADI mfeng  
Design Pattern for Model Revision in Model-Based Reasoning
This design pattern supports developing tasks in which students revise a model in situations where a given model does not adequately fit the situation or is not sufficient to solve the problems at hand.
Because of its very centrality, model revision is difficult to assess in isolation from other aspects of model-based reasoning. Model revision is prompted only by model evaluation, and then model formation must be used to propose alternatives or modifications.
2222 PADI amcolker  
Design Pattern for Model Formation in Model-Based Reasoning
This design pattern supports developing tasks in which students create a model of some real-world phenomenon or abstracted structure, in terms of entities, structures, relationships, processes, and behaviors.
The Model Formation design pattern can be viewed as a subpart of the Model-Based Inquiry design pattern, and many tasks combine Model Formation with Model Use. The Model Formation design pattern also overlaps with those for Model Elaboration and Model Revision.
2175 PADI mfeng A scientific model is a system of abstract entities, relationships, and processes. Every particular use of a model begins with the selection and assembly of particular elements from this model writ large, to establish a correspondence with particular circumstances--often real-world phenomena, but also possibly the entities, processes, and relationships in other models. This aspect of model-based reasoning is called Model Formation, although Model Instantiation would be apt as well.
Design Pattern for Model Evaluation in Model-Based Reasoning
This design pattern supports developing tasks in which students evaluate the correspondence between a model and its real-world counterparts, with emphasis on anomalies and important features not accounted for in the model.
This design pattern is tied closely with model use, and is also associated with model revision and model elaboration.
2221 PADI mfeng  
Design Pattern for Model Elaboration in Model-Based Reasoning
This design pattern supports developing tasks in which students elaborate given scientific models by combining, extending, adding detail to a model, and/or establishing correspondences across overlapping models.
This design pattern can considered a special case of model formation in that the aim is to develop a modeled conception of a situation. But the emphasis is what is happening in the model layer with respect to extensions of models or connections between models. Model elaboration is also similar to model revision, in that a given model or a set of unconnected models does not account properly for the target situation and reformulation is required.
2219 PADI mfeng  
Design Pattern for Model Articulation in Model-Based Reasoning
Tasks supported by this design pattern assess student's ability to articulate the meaning of physical or abstract systems across multiple representations. Representations may take qualitative or quantitative forms. This DP is relevant in models with quantitative and symbolic components (e.g., connections between conceptual and mathematical aspects of physics models)
Model articulation is often be pertinent in multiple-step tasks, after the model formation step.
2220 PADI mfeng  

List of Examples:

Activity    Add'l KSAs: Affective    Add'l KSAs: Cognitive    Add'l KSAs: Executive    Add'l KSAs: Language and Symbols    Add'l KSAs: Perceptual    Add'l KSAs: Skill and Fluency    Continuous Zone    Design Pattern    Educational Standard    Evaluation Phase    Evaluation Procedure (rubric)    Materials and Presentation    Measurement Model    Narrative Structure    Observable Variable    State Benchmark    State Standards    Student Model    Student Model Variable    Task Exemplar    Task Model Variable    Task Specification    Template    Variable Features: Affective    Variable Features: Cognitive    Variable Features: Executive    Variable Features: Language and Symbols    Variable Features: Perceptual    Variable Features: Skill and Fluency    Work Product   

Copyright 2002-2012 SRI International, University of Maryland, Regents of the University of California. Patent Pending.
For more information, see the PADI Web site.