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MCA I I I: 7.1.1.1.1
Understand that prior expectations can create bias when conducting scientific investigations. For example: Students often continue to think that air is not matter, even though they have contrary evidence from investigations.
2178 PADI mliu Item Specifications
* Items may address common preconceptions of middle level students
* Items assessing this benchmark may also assess benchmark 7.1.1.2.4
MCA II: 6.I.A.2
The student will explain why scientists often repeat investigations to be sure of the results.
2159 Kansas, PADI lructtinger  
MCA II: 6.I.B.1
The student will identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigation and those that cannot.
2161 Kansas, PADI lructtinger  
MCA II: 6.I.B.2
The student will distinguish among observation, prediction and inference.
2163 Kansas, PADI lructtinger  
MCA II: 6.I.B.3
The student will use appropriate tools and Système International (SI) units for measuring length, time, mass, volume and temperature with suitable precision and accuracy.
2169 PADI lructtinger  
MCA II: 6.I.B.4
The student will present and explain data and findings from controlled experiments using multiple representations including tables, graphs, physical models and demonstrations.
2164 Kansas, PADI lructtinger  
MCA II: 7.I.A.2
The student will explain natural phenomena by using appropriate physical, conceptual and mathematical models.
2160 Kansas, PADI lructtinger  
MCA II: 7.I.B.1
The student will formulate a testable hypothesis based on prior knowledge.
2162 Kansas, PADI lructtinger Same as benchmark MCA II: 6.I.B.1
MCA II: 7.I.B.2
The student will recognize that a variable is a condition that may influence the outcome of an investigation and know the importance of manipulating one variable at a time.
The student will specify variables to be changed, controlled and measured.
2170 PADI lructtinger  
MCA II: 7.I.B.3
The student will write a specific step-by-step procedure for a scientific investigation.
2171 PADI lructtinger  
MCA II: 7.I.B.4
The student will explain how classroom scientific investigations relate to established scientific principles.
2172 PADI lructtinger  
MCA II: 8.I.A.2
The student will explain the development, usefulness and limitations of scientific models in the explanation and prediction of natural phenomena.
2173 PADI lructtinger  
MCA II: 8.I.B.1
The student will know that scientific investigations involve the common elements of systematic observations, the careful collection of relevant evidence, logical reasoning and innovation in developing hypotheses and explanations.
2165 Kansas, PADI lructtinger  
MCA II: 8.I.B.2
The student will describe how scientists can conduct investigations in a simple system and make generalizations to more complex systems.
2166 Kansas, PADI lructtinger  
MCA II: 8.I.B.3
The student will recognize that a variable is a condition that may influence the outcome of an investigation and
know the importance of manipulating one variable at a time.
The student will specify variables to be changed, controlled and measured.
2174 PADI lructtinger Same benchmark as MCA II: 7.I.B.2
MCA III: 4.1.2.1.1
Describe the positive and negative impacts that the designed world has on the natural world as more and more engineered products and services are created and used.
Item Specifications
-Items may require students to classify impacts as positive, negative or both
-Designed products and services are limited to those that are familiar to a grade 4 student, such as an aluminum can, plastic bag, plastic bottle or bicycle
2196 PADI bcheng  
MCA III: 6.1.2.1.1
Identify a common engineered system and evaluate its impact on the daily life of humans. For example: Refrigeration, cell phone or automobile.
Item Specifications
• Items are limited to engineered machines, structures, processes and systems that would be equally accessible to middle level students in all socio-economic groups
2197 PADI bcheng  
MCA III: 6.1.2.1.2
Recognize that there is no perfect design and that new technologies have consequences that may increase some risks and decrease others. For example: Seat belts and airbags.
Item Specifications
• Items are limited to engineered machines, structures, processes and systems that would be equally accessible to middle level students in all socio-economic groups
2198 PADI bcheng  
MCA III: 6.1.2.1.3
Describe the trade-offs in using manufactured products in terms of features, performance, durability and cost.
Item Specifications
• Items are limited to engineered machines, structures, processes and systems that would be equally accessible to middle level students in all socio-economic groups
• Items may include differences between an incandescent lightbulb and a compact fluorescent or the differences between using a pen versus a pencil
2199 PADI bcheng  
MCA III: 6.1.2.1.4
Explain the importance of learning from past failures, in order to inform future designs of similar products or systems. For example: Space shuttle or bridge design.
Item Specifications
- Items will include any necessary background knowledge about the system that failed
- Items may be based on actual case studies of past engineering failures
2200 PADI bcheng  
MCA III: 6.1.2.2.1
Apply and document an engineering design process that includes identifying criteria and constraints, making representations, testing and evaluation, and refining the design as needed to construct a product or system that solves a problem. For example: Investigate how energy changes from one form to another by designing and constructing a simple roller coaster for a marble.
Item Specifications
-Items may require students to evaluate the feasibility of the representations, recognize the iterative nature of the design process, identify potential design changes or identify criteria and constraints
- Items assessing this benchmark may also assess benchmark 8.1.3.3.3
2201 PADI bcheng  
MCA III: 6.1.3.1.1
Describe a system in terms of its subsystems and parts, as well as its inputs, processes and outputs.
Item Specifications
• Items are limited to designed or natural systems related to grades 6–8 benchmarks in physical science, life science or Earth science content standards
• Items may require students to label the components of a system
2203 PADI bcheng  
MCA III: 6.1.3.1.2
Distinguish between open and closed systems.
2202 PADI lructtinger  
MCA III: 6.1.3.4.1
Determine and use appropriate safe procedures, tools, measurements, graphs and mathematical analyses to describe and investigate natural and designed systems in a physical science context.
2193 PADI mliu  
MCA III: 7.1.1.1.1
Understand that prior expectations can create bias when conducting scientific investigations. For example: Students often continue to think that air is not matter, even though they have contrary evidence from investigations.
2176 PADI mliu  
MCA III: 7.1.1.1.2
Understand that when similar investigations give different results, the challenge is to judge whether the differences are significant, and if further studies are required. For example: Use mean and range to analyze the reliability of experimental results.
2177 PADI mliu Item Specifications
* Items may require students to compare statistical data from different investigations
* Items will NOT require students to make statistical calculations
* Statistics provided will be limited to mean, median and range
* Items may include qualitative or quantitative data
* Items may include graphs and tables to represent investigation results
MCA III: 7.1.1.2.1
Generate and refine a variety of scientific questions and match them with appropriate methods of investigation, such as field studies, controlled experiments, reviews of existing work and development of models.
2180 PADI mliu  
MCA III: 7.1.1.2.2
Plan and conduct a controlled experiment to test a hypothesis about a relationship between two variables, ensuring that one variable is systematically manipulated, the other is measured and recorded, and any other variables are kept the same (controlled). For example: The effect of various factors on the production of carbon dioxide by plants.
2191 PADI mliu  
MCA III: 7.1.1.2.3
Generate a scientific conclusion from an investigation, clearly distinguishing between results (evidence) and conclusions (explanation).
2181 PADI mliu  
MCA III: 7.1.1.2.4
Evaluate explanations proposed by others by examining and comparing evidence, identifying faulty reasoning, and suggesting alternative explanations.
2182 PADI mliu Item Specifications
* Items assessing this benchmark may also assess benchmark 7.1.1.1.1
MCA III: 7.1.3.4.1
Use maps, satellite images and other data sets to describe patterns and make predictions about natural systems in a life science context. For example: Use online data sets to compare wildlife populations or water quality in regions of Minnesota.
2184 PADI mliu Note: This benchmark has already suggested a specific context of assessing observational skills
MCA III: 7.1.3.4.2
Determine and use appropriate safety procedures, tools, measurements, graphs and mathematical analyses to describe and investigate natural and designed systems in a life science context.
2192 PADI mliu  
MCA III: 8.1.1.1.1
Evaluate the reasoning in arguments in which fact and opinion are intermingled or when conclusions do not follow logically from the evidence given. For example: Evaluate the use of pH in advertising products related to body care and gardening.
2179 PADI mliu Item Specifications
* Items will address scientific evidence in the context of science content
* Evidence consists of observations and data on which to base scientific explanations
* Items assessing this benchmark may also assess benchmark 7.1.1.2.3
MCA III: 8.1.1.2.1
Use logical reasoning and imagination to develop descriptions, explanations, predictions and models based on evidence.
2183 PADI mliu  
MCA III: 8.1.3.4.1
Use maps, satellite images and other data sets to describe patterns and make predictions about local and global systems in Earth science contexts. For example: Use data or satellite images to identify locations of earthquakes and volcanoes, ages of sea floor, ocean surface temperatures and ozone concentration in the stratosphere.
2185 PADI mliu  
MCA III: 8.1.3.4.2
Determine and use appropriate safety procedures, tools, measurements, graphs and mathematical analyses to describe and investigate natural and designed systems in Earth and physical science contexts.
2194 PADI mliu  


List of Examples:

Activity    Add'l KSAs: Affective    Add'l KSAs: Cognitive    Add'l KSAs: Executive    Add'l KSAs: Language and Symbols    Add'l KSAs: Perceptual    Add'l KSAs: Skill and Fluency    Continuous Zone    Design Pattern    Educational Standard    Evaluation Phase    Evaluation Procedure (rubric)    Materials and Presentation    Measurement Model    Narrative Structure    Observable Variable    State Benchmark    State Standards    Student Model    Student Model Variable    Task Exemplar    Task Model Variable    Task Specification    Template    Variable Features: Affective    Variable Features: Cognitive    Variable Features: Executive    Variable Features: Language and Symbols    Variable Features: Perceptual    Variable Features: Skill and Fluency    Work Product   


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