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All Data Models

Click a data model to see a list of all examples of that model.

Data Models ID Description

Activity

10

Activities constitute the major components of a task template and are used to structure the generation, collection, and scoring of evidence. An activity contains a group of related items, including presentation materials, work products, evaluation rules, observable variables, and measurement models. Consider one activity for any single stimulus, where a stimulus is, for example, one paper test. If there is any chance of conditional dependence among responses, all the responses should be part of the same activity, to allow for bundling as necessary. Activities can belong to multiple templates, and a template can have one or many activities; the decisions of whether to have several activities, and how to define the scope of an activity are left to the assessment developer. For example, an inquiry task may have several distinct stages of investigation, and such stages act as a natural partitioning of the task into activities. As a second example, suppose a task consists of a list of "mix and match" subtasks, from which a student may choose; each of the integral subtasks could be cast as an activity within a single template. All activities within a template will update student model variables found within a single student model, as specified by the template.

Add'l KSAs: Affective

27

are additional abilities that involve the affective function of student, like the ability to engage with a task

Add'l KSAs: Cognitive

25

are additional abilities that involve the cognition of student

Add'l KSAs: Executive

26

are additional abilities that involve the executive function of student, like the ability to set goals

Add'l KSAs: Language and Symbols

24

are additional abilities that involve the language of student

Add'l KSAs: Perceptual

22

are additional abilities that involve the perception of student

Add'l KSAs: Skill and Fluency

23

are additional skills that involve the expression of student

Continuous Zone

16

A zone or level in a continuous Student Model Variable that describes a distinct amount of ability, as judged by experts, usually with an empirical basis within a specific population of examinees. Each zone includes a lower and upper (minimum and maximum) cutoff value.

Design Pattern

1

Design Patterns are concepts that form a foundation for an assessment. The focus of design patterns is on the substance of the assessment argument rather than the technical details of operational elements and delivery systems. For example, some of the design patterns in the PADI Project bridge knowledge about aspects of science inquiry with knowledge of the structures of a coherent assessment argument, in a format that guides task creation and assessment implementation.

Educational Standard

18

Evaluation Phase

13

Evaluation phases are individual steps during an evaluation procedure.

Evaluation Procedure (rubric)

6

Evaluation procedures (rubrics) are scoring schemes that turn students' work products into observable variables (scores).

Materials and Presentation

12

Materials and Presentation specifications are requirements for the environment surrounding a student during an assessment, as well as things provided to the student. These materials are typically the stimuli for the tasks, such as the pictures, text, or other media that present a situation or problem to the student. Materials and Presentation specifications are abstract descriptions, complemented by concrete "settings," stored outside the description. That is, a Materials and Presentation specification describes, but does not contain, the actual content (the text or image or whatever) of the material and/or presentation. That actual content is indicated outside the Materials and Presentation specification via a "setting" made in the Template or Task Specification. (Typically, an abstract Template has Materials and Presentations without settings, whereas a concrete Task Specification includes both the description and the concrete settings.)

Measurement Model

4

Measurement models associate observable variables (OVs) with student model variables (SMVs) in order to describe how to change proficiency estimates as observations are obtained. Each measurement model may associate one or more student model variables with exactly one observable variable. (The rule for a single OV was established for computational simplicity within PADI.) Some of the attributes below have to do with a specific psychometric model, the Multidimensional Random Coefficient Multinomial Logit Model (MRCMLM; see http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=9711023&dopt=Abstract ). The MRCML Model is a Rasch-based item response model generalized for use with polytomous items to produce multivariate estimates. The scoring engine provided with PADI uses this model, so this Design System makes it convenient to provide information for MRCMLM. Other psychometric models can be somewhat accommodated by ignoring the MRCMLM attributes (Scoring, Design, and Calibration matrices). Alternatively, the PADI Design System is flexible, so the attributes themselves could be adapted as necessary.

Narrative Structure

20

describes overall storyline of prompt(s); helps to categorize and may help generate tasks

Observable Variable

9

Observable variables are the "scores" that result from an evaluation of a student's work product. Each observable variable is associated with exactly one measurement model.

State Benchmark

19

State Standards

21

Student Model

3

Student models are collections of estimates of student proficiencies and contain one or more student model variables.

Student Model Variable

14

Student model variables are individual estimates of one facet of student proficiencies. A student model variable is a part of at least one, and possibly more than one, student model.

Task Exemplar

17

Task Model Variable

5

Task model variables (TMVs) are conditions in the assessment and its environment that are caused to vary, or vary because of the student, and thereby affect the assessment in a significant way. A task model variable can represent a decision that an assessment designer makes before deploying an assessment, like the difficulty level of an item, which may be adjustable to a given audience. Alternatively, if a student or the assessment environment changes the outcome of a work product such that the evaluation must adapt, that is considered a runtime TMV. Task model variables are abstract descriptions, complemented by concrete settings that are stored outside the TMV. That is, a TMV describes, but does not contain the decision between choices of the variable. Any concrete choice or setting is stored outside the TMV in a TMV setting. See a Template sample and locate the 'Task model variables settings' attributes. Typically, an abstract Template describes Task model variables and has few settings, whereas a concrete Task Specification includes both the description and the concrete setting.

Template

2

Templates are blueprints for assessment tasks that combine task environment information with evidence evaluation logic. Templates are also known as task-evidence shells. Templates can vary from abstract, general ideas to concrete specifications, ready to generate assessments. A template generally retains some flexibility, some unspecified aspects, such as Task Model Variables that have not been specified yet. When every variable in a template is decided and specified for a particular assessment, the template becomes a Task Specification, something that is ready for use in generating assessments.

Variable Features: Affective

33

are task features that involve the affective function of student

Variable Features: Cognitive

31

are task features that involve the cognition of student

Variable Features: Executive

32

are task features that involve the executive function of student

Variable Features: Language and Symbols

30

are task features that involve the language of student

Variable Features: Perceptual

28

are task features that involve the perception of student

Variable Features: Skill and Fluency

29

are task features that involve the expression of student

Work Product

11

Work products are the actual things created by the student during the assessment.



List of Examples:

Activity    Add'l KSAs: Affective    Add'l KSAs: Cognitive    Add'l KSAs: Executive    Add'l KSAs: Language and Symbols    Add'l KSAs: Perceptual    Add'l KSAs: Skill and Fluency    Continuous Zone    Design Pattern    Educational Standard    Evaluation Phase    Evaluation Procedure (rubric)    Materials and Presentation    Measurement Model    Narrative Structure    Observable Variable    State Benchmark    State Standards    Student Model    Student Model Variable    Task Exemplar    Task Model Variable    Task Specification    Template    Variable Features: Affective    Variable Features: Cognitive    Variable Features: Executive    Variable Features: Language and Symbols    Variable Features: Perceptual    Variable Features: Skill and Fluency    Work Product   


Copyright 2002-2012 SRI International, University of Maryland, Regents of the University of California. Patent Pending.
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